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Global Aviation Information Network

Document Series
Christopher Hart
Subject Risk Reduction Program
Workshop: Improving Railroad Safety through Understanding Close Calls
Christopher Hart Presentation


 Slide 1:
Global Aviation Information Network (

[GAIN logo: airliner circling globe]

Christopher A. Hart
Federal Aviation Administration
Assistant Administrator for System Safety


 Slide 2:
[GAIN logo]

Introduction to GAIN

* Goal: Develop Tools and Processes for the Aviation Community to Make Data-Driven Decisions Using Data Beyond Accidents or Incidents
* Challenges and Solutions
* Participants
* Significant Immediate Savings
* Applicable to Many Industries ?Other Transportation Modes, Health Care, National Security, Others


 Slide 3:
[GAIN logo]

The Hands-On &##39;&##39;Front Line&##39;&##39; Folks: 

&##39;&##39;We All Knew About That Problem&##39;&##39;


 Slide 4:
[GAIN logo]

Benefits of Routine FDR Use

[line graph entitled:]
Hull Losses as a Percent of Total Turbine Fleet
Flight Data Recorder Users vs. U.S. vs. World,

[graph lines illustrate] FDR Use <7Years; FDR Use 7-14 Years; FDR Use >14 Years; Worldwide; Total U.S. [percentage over] 1976-82; 1983-89; 1990-96

Sources: Total U.S. - FAA NASDAC; Other - Skandia Insurance Co. Ltd.


 Slide 5:
[GAIN logo]

[line graph entitled:] Norwegian Rail Experience

[graph lines illustrate] Total number of reported and analyzed events [number unspecified]; Number of reported and analyzed near-misses [number unspecified]; Lost Time: 37% reduction; Accidents:40% reduction [annually over] 1995, 1996, 1997, and 1998

[notation:] Synergi implemented [1996]

Source: Pride AS


 Slide 6:
[GAIN logo]

Current System Data Flow

Almost all Data is Lost Forever

Currently Only a Minute Portion of Data is Collected and Analyzed

[illustration of Sherlock Holmes figure studying small leak in flowing pipeline]


 Slide 7:
[GAIN logo]

Heinrich Pyramid

[pyramid graph of] ACCIDENTS [small tip of pyramid]; INCIDENTS [larger area near top of pyramid]; UNREPORTED OCCURRENCES [most of pyramid extending up from base to approximately 2/3 of total height]


 Slide 8:
[GAIN logo]

National Civil Aviation Review Commission:*

&##39;&##39;The aviation community must look deeper than accidents and incidents to identify latent and emerging problems and fix them before a mishap occurs.&##39;&##39;

Avoiding Aviation Gridlock & Reducing the Accident Rate, Dec. 1997, p. III-20

* Chair:  Hon. Norman Y. Mineta, now Secretary, U.S. Department  of Transportation


 Slide 9:
[GAIN logo]

Common Characteristics

* Inadvertent
* Could Be A Link In An Accident Chain
* Happens Repeatedly


 Slide 10:
[GAIN logo]

So Should We...

* Regulate More?
* Punish More?  
* Increase Training?


Share Information to Fix the System?


 Slide 11:
[GAIN logo]

Fix the Person or the System?

Is the Person Clumsy?
Or Is the Problem . . . The Step???

[illustration of a figure running up steps]


 Slide 12:
[GAIN logo]

GAIN is:

* Privately owned and operated
* An international cooperative effort
* Voluntary

[illustration entitled] GAIN: The Coordinator [of multi-nodal network connecting] Systems A, B, C, D, E, F


 Slide 13:
[GAIN logo]

Former FAA Administrator Jane Garvey:

&##39;&##39;GAIN is one of our best hopes for enhancing aviation safety in the next century.&##39;&##39;

GAIN III World Conference
November 1998


 Slide 14:
[GAIN logo]

Information: The Fuel for Our Engine

[illustration of a car with a fuel tank full of] Information [moving the car toward] Improved Safety


 Slide 15:
[GAIN logo]

Concerns That Discourage Collection and Analysis

* Public Disclosure
* Job Sanctions and/or Enforcement
* Criminal Sanctions
* Civil Litigation


 Slide 16:
[GAIN logo]

Shifting the Paradigm

How It Is Now . . .
You are highly trained
If you did as trained, you 
would not make mistakes
You weren’t careful enough
You should be PUNISHED!

How It Should Be . . .
You are human
Humans make mistakes
Let’s also explore why the 
system allowed, or failed to 
accommodate, your mistake


 Slide 17:
[GAIN logo]


[illustration of a runner leaping over hurdles entitled] Legal Issues [and] Improved Analytical Tools

As we begin to get over the first hurdle, we must start working on the second.


 Slide 18:
[GAIN logo]

Is This Light Random?

[illustration of beam of light emitted from a hole at the end of a long box]


 Slide 19:
[GAIN logo]

Accidents Result From a Combination of Events

[illustration of cutaway view of a long box showing openings in wheels unaligned, blocking beam of light]

[illustration of cutaway view of a long box showing shining beam of light passing through openings in aligned wheels]


 Slide 20:
[GAIN logo]

Information Overload

[illustration of a large wave about to engulf a figure on the beach, who sees the wave and says:] &##39;&##39;Eureka, more information!&##39;&##39;

?1996 Ted Goff


 Slide 21:
[GAIN logo]

All Accidents Involve Human Factors

* Pilots
* Air Traffic Controllers
* Mechanics
* Cabin Crew
* Dispatchers
* Ramp Personnel 
* Airport Operators 
* Manufacturers 
* Designers
* Management: Agency/Corporate

[added together equals]



 Slide 22:


 Slide 23:


 Slide 24:
[GAIN logo]

Steering Committee

  jetBlue (Chair)
  Alaska Airlines
  American Airlines
  Middle East Airlines
  Japan Airlines
  Air Transport Association
  Int’l Air Transport Association
  Regional Airline Association


  Air Line Pilots Association
  Int’l Association of Machinists & Aerospace Workers
  National Air Traffic Controllers Association

General Aviation
  National Business Aviation Association
  Helicopter Association Int’l

U.S. Military

Flight Safety Foundation


 Slide 25:
[GAIN logo]

Working Groups 

Working Group A
  Aviation Operator Safety Practices

Working Group B
  Analytical Methods and Tools

Working Group C
  Global Information Sharing Prototypes

Government Support Team (GST)
  Several Countries, JAA, European Commission, ICAO

Working Group E
  Flight Ops/ATC Ops Safety Information Sharing


 Slide 26:
[GAIN logo]

Moral:  Joint Effort Required

All Segments of the Industry 
Must Work Together
  * Management
  * Labor
  * Manufacturers
  * Governments


 Slide 27:
[GAIN logo]

Industry Taking Charge

First Two GAIN Conferences:
 * Sponsored by FAA, UK CAA, Royal Aeronautical Society (UK)

Industry Has Taken the Lead:
 * Conference Hosts ?Alitalia, Airbus Industrie (twice), Delta Airlines, Air France, United Airlines
 * GAIN Steering Committee ?Led by  Industry
 * Working Groups ?Mostly Industry


 Slide 28:
[GAIN logo]

Many Have Already Begun The Process

[illustration of foundation] Foundation: Collecting and Analyzing [and wall] Sharing

* Airlines
* Manufacturers
* Unions
* Government


 Slide 29:






Slide 30:

 [GAIN logo]

Others Who Are Interested

Transportation Department
 * Coast Guard, MARAD (IMISS)
 * Highway Administration
 * Railroad Administration
 * Pipeline Safety

 Slide 31:
[GAIN logo]

Others (con’t)

 * Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office (CIAO)
 * Nuclear Power
 * Chemical Manufacturing
 * Public Utilities
 * Firefighters
 * Health Care Industry
  Slide 32:
[GAIN logo]

The Health Care Industry

To Err Is Human:
Building a Better Health Care System
&##39;&##39;The focus must shift from blaming individuals for past errors to a focus on preventing future errors by designing safety into the system.&##39;&##39;
Institute of Medicine, Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, 1999


  Slide 33:
[GAIN logo]

The Future:

Role of GAIN In Security???


  Slide 34:
[GAIN logo]

Want To Get Involved?

Next GAIN World Conference:
Rome, June 18-19, 2003
Sponsored by Alitalia [logo]

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Last updated: Wednesday, April 23, 2003